International Journal of Nutrology https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn <div class="row"> <div class="col-lg-2 journal-front"> <div class="journal-front-section-title-left"> </div> <img src="https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/public/journals/1/journalThumbnail_en_US.jpg" alt="" width="150" height="211" /></div> <div class="col-lg-7 journal-front"> <div class="journal-front-section-title-left">Aim &amp; Scope</div> <p><strong>International Journal of Nutrology (IJN)</strong> aims to publish a wide range of articles that describe scientific mechanisms, efficacy, and safety of dietary interventions in the context of disease prevention and health benefits. Public health and epidemiologic studies relevant to human nutrition, and investigations that employ epigenetic, genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic approaches are encouraged. The journal publishes human and animal studies, and accepts original articles, review articles, case reports and letters to the Editor. All submissions are peer reviewed.</p> <p>IJN also publishes supplements. The symposium organizer needs to provide the topic and content of the symposium to the Editorial Office, including title, location, and date of the meeting; the names and affiliations of potential Guest Editors; the sponsor(s) of the meeting; the sponsor(s) of the publication; and the program from the meeting along with the names of the speakers. The individual articles will be submitted to anonymous peer review of each article. To be considered for publication, supplement articles must be received within 3 months of each symposium or workshop. Each manuscript should not exceed 6.500 words, exclusive of tables, figures, and references; it must follow the IJN style and format and will be reviewed according to the same scientific standards used to evaluate original research articles.</p> </div> <div class="col-lg-3 journal-front"> <div class="journal-front-section-title">Journal Description</div> <div class="front-lef"> <p>Title: <strong> International Journal of Nutrology</strong> <br />E-ISSN: <strong><a title="2595-2854" href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2595-2854" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2595-2854</a></strong> <br />P-ISSN: <strong><a href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/1984-3011" target="_blank" rel="noopener">1984-3011</a></strong><br />Journal Abbreviation: <strong>IJN</strong><br />Publication language: <strong>English</strong> <br />Publishing frequency: <strong>Quarterly</strong><br />DOI Prefix: <strong><a title="10.54448" href="https://api.crossref.org/prefixes/10.54448/works" 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Transfer of copyright:</strong><br />The corresponding author or designee below, with the consent of all co-authors, hereby transfers to the publishers and copyright ownership in the referenced submitted work, including all versions in any format now known or hereafter developed and sell the articles worldwide in all languages and media (Publishing Agreement &amp; Copyright Transfer Form).</p> <p><br /><strong>2. Rights and obligations of Publisher:</strong><br />The Publisher's rights to the Article shall especially include, but shall not be limited to:<br />Ability to publish an electronic version of the Article via the website of the publisher or any other electronic format or means of electronic distribution provided by or through publisher from time to time, selling the Article world-wide (through subscriptions, Pay-per-View, single archive sale, etc.)<br />Transforming to and selling the Article through any electronic format Publishing the Article in the printed Journals as listed on the official Website of Publisher<br />Transferring the copyright and the right of use of the Article on to any third party Translating the Article in any language Taking measures on behalf of the Author against in fringement, in appropriate use of the Article, libel or plagiarism.<br />Publishers agrees to send the text of the manuscript to the corresponding author e-mail address of Author indicated in the present Statement for preview before the first publishing either in paper and/or electronic format (Proof). Author should return the corrected test of the manuscript within 5 days to the publisher. Author shall, however, not make any change to the content of the Article during the First Proof preview.</p> <p><strong>3. Rights and obligations of Author:</strong><br />The Author declares and warrants that he/she is the exclusive author of the Article– or has the right to represent all co-authors of the Article and has not granted any exclusive or non-exclusive right to the Article to any third party prior to the execution of the present Statement and has the right therefore to enter in to the present Statement and entitle the Publisher the use of the Article subject to the present Statement. By executing the present Statement Author confirms that the Article is free of plagiarism, and that Author has exercised reasonable care to ensure that it is accurate and, to the best of Author's knowledge, does not contain any thing which is libellous, or obscene, or infringes on anyone's copyright, right of privacy, or other rights. The Author expressively acknowledges and accepts that he/she shall been titled to no royalty (or any other fee) related to any use of the Article subject to the present Statement. The Author further accepts that he/she will not been titled to dispose of the copyright of the final, published version of the Article or make use of this version of the Article in any manner after the execution of the present Statement. The Author is entitled, however, to self-archive the preprint version of his/her manuscript. The preprint version is the<br />Author's manuscript or the galley proof or the Author's manuscript along with the corrections made in the course of the peer-review process.<br />The Author's right to self-archive is irrespective of the format of the preprint (.doc, .tex., .pdf) version and self-archiving includes the free circulation of this file via e-mail or publication of this pre print on the Author's web page or on the Author's institution a repository with open or<br />restricted access. When self-archiving a paper the Author should clearly declare that the archived file is not the final published version of the paper, he/she should quote the correct citation and enclose a link to the published paper( http://dx.doi.org/[DOI of the Article without brackets]).<br />4. Use of third party content as part of the Article When not indicating any co-authors in the present Statement Author confirms that he/she is the exclusive author of the Article. When indicating co- authors in the present Statement Author declares and warrants that all co-authors have been listed and Author has the exclusive and<br />unlimited right to represent all the co-authors of the Article and to enter into the present Statement on their behalf and as a consequence all declarations made by Author in the present Statement are made in the name of the co-authors as well. Author also confirms that he/she shall hold Publisher harmless of all third-party claims in connection to non-authorized use of the Article by Publisher. Should Author wish to reuse material sourced from third parties such as other copyright holders, publishers, authors, etc. as part of the Article, Author bears responsibility for acquiring and clearing of the third party permissions for such use before submitting the Article to the Publisher for acceptance. Author shall<br />hold Publisher harmless from all third party claims in connection to the unauthorized use of any material under legal protection forming a part of the Article.</p> <p><strong>5.Share with Colleagues:</strong><br />Subject to the publishers, Authors may send or otherwise transmit electronic files of the Submitted or Accepted Work to interested colleagues<br />prior to, or after, publication. Sharing of the Published Work with colleagues is permitted if it is done via the journal articles on Request authordirected link. The sharing of any version of the Work with colleagues is only permitted if it is done for non-commercial purposes; that no fee is charged; and that it is not done on a systematic basis, e.g. mass emailings, posting on a listserv, etc. Recipients should be informed that further redistribution of any version of the Work is not allowed. Authorized users of the publisher's website may also email a link to the Author's article directly to colleagues as well as recommend and share a link to the Author's article with known colleagues through popular social networking services such as Facebook, Twitter, or CiteULike.</p> <p><strong>6. Retained Rights:</strong><br />The Author(s) retain copyright and all other intellectual property rights.<br />Article Processing Fees International Journal of Nutrology (IJN) is an open access journal. Articles in the journal are free to access, download, share, and reuse.<br />Also, we do not charge any submission charges from the authors.<br />Open Access Statement<br />Creative Commons Licenses<br />International Journal of Nutrology (IJN) articles are published open access under a CC BY license (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License). The CC BY license allows for maximum dissemination and re-use of open access materials and is preferred by many<br />research funding bodies. Under this license users are free to share (copy, distribute and transmit) and remix (adapt) the contribution including for commercial purposes, providing they attribute the contribution in the manner specified by the author or licensor (read full legal code).<br />Under Creative Commons, authors retain copyright in their articles.<br />Visit our open research site for more information about Creative Commons licensing.</p> Effectiveness of argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of weight regain after roux-y gastric bypass: a cross-sectional prospective observational study https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/348 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) is one of the most commonly performed surgeries to treat obesity worldwide. However, approximately 20% of patients have a recurrence of obesity, and enlargement of the gastrojejunal anastomosis is one of the associated factors. Endoscopic treatment of anastomosis has been proposed for further weight loss. One of the most commonly used techniques for anastomotic narrowing is argon plasma coagulation (APC). However, no randomized controlled trials have proven that this technique is superior to multidisciplinary follow-up<strong>. Objective: </strong>To evaluate and investigate the efficacy and safety of the application of argon plasma in the gastrojejunal anastomosis in the relapse of obesity after Gastric Bypass. <strong>Methods: </strong>Transversal study. Thirty-two patients were selected. More than 50% of The excess body weight regained was lost. Ranging from 6 to 25 kg. <strong>Results: </strong>A loss of more than 50% of the excess weight regained was observed in 30 % patients. Ranging from 6 to 25 kg. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The application of argon plasma coagulation was safe and effective in the treatment of obesity recurrence after gastric bypass.</p> Keila Regina Matos Cantanhede Rafaela Matos Cantanhede Paola Filgueiras David de Souza Omar Ahmad Abou Abbas Izabela Augusta de Oliveira Medeiros Karen Thalyne Pereira e Silva Domingos Douglas Stélio Lima Martins Nathalia Galindo Cordeiro Mirela Luna Santana Gomes Caroline Oliva Carvalho Borges Copyright (c) 2023 Keila Regina Matos Cantanhede, Rafaela Matos Cantanhede, Paola Filgueiras David de Souza, Omar Ahmad Abou Abbas, Izabela Augusta de Oliveira Medeiros, Karen Thalyne Pereira e Silva Domingos, Douglas Stélio Lima Martins, Nathalia Galindo Cordeiro, Mirela Luna Santana Gomes, Caroline Oliva Carvalho Borges https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-28 2024-02-28 17 1 10.54448/ijn24111 Nutrological aspects of polyphenols and gut microbiota in sports performance: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/346 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> In the context of nutrology and sports performance, the focus for intake in athletes and physically active individuals has been directed to the main class of polyphenols. Interest in a personalized approach is increasing in sports to maximize each individual's athletic ability in endurance and strength sports. Polyphenols represent a heterogeneous class of compounds with marked antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The impact of the gut microbiota on the bioavailability and activity of polyphenols is highlighted. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to carry out a systematic review to highlight the main relationships between polyphenols, gut microbiota, and sports performance. <strong>Methods:</strong> The systematic review rules of the PRISMA Platform were followed. The research was carried out from May to July 2023 in Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion: </strong>A total of 115 articles were found, and 81 articles were evaluated in full and 76 were included and developed in this systematic review study. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 6 studies with a high risk of bias and 10 studies that did not meet GRADE. As a result and conclusion, it was shown that the metabolic mechanisms favored by polyphenols improve sports performance, improve cardiometabolic functions, reduce recovery times and post-exercise pain, maintain a low degree of oxidative stress, and avoid unregulated inflammatory processes. Thus, polyphenols are able, through their interaction with the gut microbiota, to favor the proliferation of bacterial genera of great importance for metabolic and cognitive functions, such as Akkermansia, Lactobacilli, and Bifidobacteria. Gut microbiota metabolizes polyphenols in the colon to produce small bioactive molecules that exert epigenetic mechanisms on biochemical pathways modulating gene expression. Polyphenols have multiple biological effects, and future exercise studies should be appropriately and specifically designed to determine the physiological interactions between exercise and the selected supplement, rather than just considering performance.</p> Lara Souza Crepaldi Thuany da Silva Teixeira Mariana Carolina Braga Alessandra Leal de Oliveira Lucas Emanuel de Lima Azevedo Renata Cristina Taveira Azevedo Nathalia Galindo Cordeiro Rodrigo siqueira de Carvalho Copyright (c) 2023 Lara Souza Crepaldi, Thuany da Silva Teixeira, Mariana Carolina Braga, Alessandra Leal de Oliveira, Lucas Emanuel de Lima Azevedo, Renata Cristina Taveira Azevedo, Nathalia Galindo Cordeiro, Rodrigo siqueira de Carvalho https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-16 2024-02-16 17 1 10.54448/ijn24110 Clinical approaches to the ketogenic diet in the treatment of obesity and other chronic diseases: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/342 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The ketogenic diet, a restrictive diet, is mainly characterized by high fat content, low or absent carbohydrate content, and low or normal amounts of protein. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to present the important role of the ketogenic diet in the treatment of obesity and other chronic diseases. <strong>Methods: </strong>The PRISMA Platform systematic review rules were followed. The research was carried out from September to October 2023 in the Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> A total of 111 articles were found, and 44 articles were evaluated, and 22 were included in this systematic review. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 19 studies with a high risk of bias and 32 studies that did not meet GRADE. Most studies showed homogeneity in their results, with X<sup>2</sup>=65.7%&gt;50%. It was concluded that the therapeutic use of the ketogenic diet is relevant in the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, this work also showed the benefits of the metabolism of ketone bodies in the adjuvant treatment of cancer, diabetes, and obesity, thus contributing to updating knowledge about the use of the ketogenic diet in the therapy of diseases of great clinical and epidemiological importance. When it comes to obese and diabetic people, it is important to highlight that due to the lower consumption of fiber, and an increased consumption of proteins (mainly of animal origin) and fat, the risk of heart disease, colon cancer, and intestinal constipation increases.</p> Lorenna Lemos de Aquino Michelle Silva Rocha Maria Eduarda Teodoro Andrade Pamela Crestani Loro Fabiana Negreli da Silva Koslinski Raimundo Nonato de Araújo Soares Laura Belini Soares Thais Fernandes Borges Vinícius Bezerra Lopes Ademilton Maximiano de Paula Júnior Copyright (c) 2023 Lorenna Lemos de Aquino, Michelle Silva Rocha, Maria Eduarda Teodoro Andrade, Pamela Crestani Loro, Fabiana Negreli da Silva Koslinski, Raimundo Nonato de Araújo Soares, Laura Belini Soares, Thais Fernandes Borges, Vinícius Bezerra Lopes, Ademilton Maximiano de Paula Júnior https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 17 1 10.54448/ijn24109 Nutrological and pharmacological approaches to cancer cachexia: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/341 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Cancer cachexia (CC) is a multifactorial syndrome that is generally characterized by the continuous loss of skeletal muscle mass with or without fat loss, often accompanied by anorexia, weakness, and fatigue. Cancer cachexia is associated with poor tolerance to antitumor treatments, reduced quality of life, and a negative impact on survival. Unintentional weight loss has been associated with a negative impact on multiple outcomes in cancer patients, including survival and quality of life.<strong> Objective: </strong>It was to present the main evidence of the nutrological and pharmacological treatment of cancer cachexia through a systematic review.<strong> Methods: </strong>The systematic review rules of the PRISMA Platform were followed. The research was carried out from October a December 2023 in Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion: </strong>A total of 127 articles were found. A total of 67 articles were evaluated and 24 were included in this systematic review. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 10 studies with a high risk of bias and 10 studies that did not meet GRADE. Most studies showed homogeneity in their results, with X<sup>2</sup>=74.5%&gt;50%. Based on the results, symptoms associated with cancer cachexia are thought to be caused by tumor-induced changes in host metabolism that result in systemic inflammation and abnormal neurohormonal responses. The sarcopenia seen in many patients with cancer cachexia is caused, in part, by increased activation of circulating proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF) and skeletal muscle protein breakdown by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathways. The nutritional consequences of cancer treatments must be identified early with screening and assessment of nutritional status. Nutritional intervention includes screening and appropriate nutritional assessment, which should begin early in the disease course to reduce or delay negative effects on therapy and quality of life. Liquid nutritional supplements may be useful to help increase caloric intake. Numerous investigations have reported orexigenic activity associated with progestational agents such as megestrol acetate and medroxyprogesterone. Megestrol acetate has received the most attention in randomized controlled trials of cancer patients. Also noteworthy was the use of corticosteroids and mirtazapine for weight gain and pain control.</p> Roberto Claudio Correia Filho Mariana Britez Mustafá Correia Vinícius Santos Mustafá Marcelo José Diesel Copyright (c) 2023 Roberto Claudio Correia Filho, Mariana Britez Mustafá Correia, Vinícius Santos Mustafá, Marcelo José Diesel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-27 2024-01-27 17 1 10.54448/ijn24108 Major clinical outcomes of the regulation of metainflammation in patients with obesity in the light of nutrology: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/340 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Obesity stands out as a multifactorial disease that can cause several public health problems. There are 2.0 billion overweight and obese people in the world, and Brazil is in fifth place in the world ranking. A healthy nutritional status promotes immune function and can prevent the onset of a serious inflammatory process and severe infections, especially in times of pandemics such as COVID-19. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to highlight the main clinical outcomes of the regulation of meta-inflammation in patients with obesity in the light of nutrology. <strong>Methods:</strong> The systematic review rules of the PRISMA Platform were followed. The research was carried out from August to September 2023 in Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> A total of 130 articles were found. A total of 42 articles were fully evaluated and 29 were included and developed in the present systematic review study. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 29 studies at high risk of bias and 21 studies that did not meet the GRADE. Most studies showed homogeneity in their results, with X<sup>2</sup>=71.7%&gt;50%. Research has shown that unbalanced eating patterns, such as the Western diet, rich in simple sugars, refined carbohydrates, and saturated and trans fatty acids, lead to chronic inflammatory responses, increased adipose deposition, and future comorbidities associated with overweight and obesity. Calorie restriction decreased CRP in obese patients and diet administration over 12 weeks had a beneficial effect. Furthermore, obese patients with antioxidant supplementation had lower values of BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose level, and assessment of the homeostasis model of insulin resistance when compared to the placebo group, as well as having lower levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. n-3 PUFA supplementation can significantly reduce serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentrations.</p> Renan Francisco Merloto Bruna Rocha Soares Copyright (c) 2023 Renan Francisco Merloto, Bruna Rocha Soares https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-26 2024-01-26 17 1 10.54448/ijn24107 Nutritional modulation of gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/339 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have shown an increase in incidence worldwide. The pathogenesis of IBD is that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to dysregulated gut microbiota (dysbiosis) and chronic inflammation develops as a result of poor dietary triggers. Diet plays an important role in modulating the gut microbiota and can be applied as a therapeutic tool to improve the course of the disease. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to carry out a systematic review of the main interactions between nutrology, gut microbiota, and inflammatory bowel disease, to elucidate the main clinical outcomes of the disease after nutrological treatment, analyzing the main macro and micronutrients. <strong>Methods:</strong> The PRISMA Platform systematic review rules were followed. The search was carried out from August to October 2023 in the Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> 144 articles were found. A total of 39 articles were evaluated in full and 30 were included and developed in the present systematic review study. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 27 studies with a high risk of bias and 22 studies that did not meet GRADE and AMSTAR-2. Most studies showed homogeneity in their results, with X<sup>2</sup>=59.9%&gt;50%. With nutritional treatment, several micronutrients have the potential to modulate intestinal inflammation. Immunonutrition has demonstrated its importance through vitamins A, C, E, and D, folic acid, beta-carotene, and trace elements such as zinc, selenium, manganese, and iron. The Specific Carbohydrate Diet, fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyol diet, and the Mediterranean diet also appear to show strong anti-inflammatory properties and promise to improve symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease. Diet modulation can control IBD by reducing persistent intestinal symptoms, balancing the gut microbiota, and reducing markers of inflammation. Dietary therapy can improve the quality of life of IBD patients.</p> Mariana Magalhães Bandeira Gomes Gabriela Magalhães Bandeira Gomes Mariana Carolina Braga Manuelle Gaudêncio de Oliveira Douglas Stélio Lima Martins Omar Ahmad Abou Abbas Roberto Claudio Correia Filho Vivian Menezes Irineu Keila Regina Matos Cantanhede Izabela Augusta de Oliveira Medeiros Darwin dos Santos Ribeiro Copyright (c) 2023 Mariana Magalhães Bandeira Gomes, Gabriela Magalhães Bandeira Gomes, Mariana Carolina Braga, Manuelle Gaudêncio de Oliveira, Douglas Stélio Lima Martins, Omar Ahmad Abou Abbas, Roberto Claudio Correia Filho, Vivian Menezes Irineu, Keila Regina Matos Cantanhede, Izabela Augusta de Oliveira Medeiros, Darwin dos Santos Ribeiro https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-18 2024-01-18 17 1 10.54448/ijn24106 Management of enteral/parenteral therapy in patients with obesity in the light of exosomes/microRNAs: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/338 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Alteration in the homeostasis of the intestinal microbiota is related to the prevalence of obesity, which could reach up to 57.8% of the adult world population by 2030. Likewise, the global incidence rate of type 2 diabetes, which represents 90-95 % of all diabetes cases. Extracellular vesicles (exosomes and microRNAs) have emerged as main vehicles for intercellular and intermolecular communication, including those established between the intestinal microbiota and mammals. Providing adequate nutritional therapy with essential nutrients can help mitigate the consequences of the catabolic response. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to bring together the main considerations of enteral/parenteral nutritional therapy in patients with obesity, highlighting the management of inflammatory and metabolic processes through exosomes and microRNAs. <strong>Methods:</strong> The PRISMA Platform systematic review rules were followed. The search was carried out from August to October 2023 in the Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> 118 articles were found. A total of 44 articles were evaluated in full and 39 were included in this systematic review. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 12 studies with a high risk of bias and 22 studies that did not meet GRADE. Most studies showed homogeneity in their results, with X<sup>2</sup> =52.5%&gt;50%. It was concluded that exosomes and miRNAs, through enteral/parenteral nutritional therapy, are involved in the control of weight gain, glucose homeostasis, and lipid metabolism. Some clinical studies have shown that enteral nutritional therapy is effective and safe before bariatric surgery, with ketogenic enteral nutrition leading to better clinical outcomes than hypocaloric enteral nutritional protocols in glycemic and lipid profiles to satisfy better regulation of exosomes. and microRNAs, mainly from the intestinal microbiota, for the control of inflammatory and metabolic processes.</p> Lara Suellen Marinho São Mateus Barbara Ferreira dos Santos Giovana Pissinin Rissi Copyright (c) 2023 Lara Suellen Marinho São Mateus, Barbara Ferreira dos Santos, Giovana Pissinin Rissi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-11 2024-01-11 17 1 10.54448/ijn24104 Influences of probiotics and gut microbiota on immunomodulation for the treatment of patients with cancer: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/337 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Immunomodulation and immunostimulation are the main mechanisms of action of probiotics in the fight against cancer. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to carry out a systematic review of the influences of probiotics and gut microbiota on immunomodulation for the treatment of cancer patients. <strong>Methods:</strong> The PRISMA Platform systematic review rules were followed. The research was carried out from September to October 2023 in the Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> A total of 125 articles were found, and 35 articles were evaluated in full and 18 were included and developed in the present systematic review study. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 45 studies with a high risk of bias and 15 studies that did not meet GRADE and AMSTAR-2. Most studies showed homogeneity in their results, with X<sup>2</sup>=55.4%&gt;50%. It was concluded that probiotics suppress inflammation by inhibiting several signaling pathways and reducing the global activation of NF-κβ and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Probiotics influence receptor antagonism, receptor expression, binding and expression of adapter proteins, expression of negative regulatory signal molecules, and mainly the induction of microRNAs. These microRNAs can modulate the gene expression of tumor cells together with regulatory T cells that have important functions in the tumor microenvironment, mainly in inducing immune evasion. Some modulatory effects of probiotics include the production of cytokines by epithelial cells, increased mucin secretion and phagocytosis and NK cell activity, activation of T and NKT cells, stimulation of IgA production, and decreased proliferation of T cells. The gut microbiota has a major impact on the systemic immune system. The specific microbiota controls cell differentiation in which CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells) secrete IL-17. The presence of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells is associated with the gut microbiota.</p> Mariana Carolina Braga Alessandra Leal de Oliveira Thuany da Silva Teixeira Lucas Emanuel de Lima Azevedo Lara Souza Crepaldi Renata Cristina Taveira Azevedo Nathalia Galindo Cordeiro Rodrigo siqueira de Carvalho Mariana Magalhães Bandeira Gomes Willdenberg Xavier Lira Copyright (c) 2023 Mariana Carolina Braga, Alessandra Leal de Oliveira, Thuany da Silva Teixeira, Lucas Emanuel de Lima Azevedo, Lara Souza Crepaldi, Renata Cristina Taveira Azevedo, Nathalia Galindo Cordeiro, Rodrigo siqueira de Carvalho, Mariana Magalhães Bandeira Gomes, Willdenberg Xavier Lira https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-09 2024-01-09 17 1 10.54448/ijn24103 Clinical studies and meta-analysis on the effects of collagen, vitamin, and nutrient supplementation for the rejuvenation of collagenic fibers: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/336 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Collagen prevails in connective tissues, constituting 80% of the dry weight of human skin. Aging induces a decline in enzymes involved in the post-translational processing of collagen, reducing the number of fibroblasts that synthesize collagen and the vessels that irrigate the skin. Oral ingestion of hydrolyzed collagen together with vitamins and nutrients (especially apple exosomes) increases the levels of collagenderived peptides in the bloodstream and improves skin properties. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to carry out a systematic review to elucidate the main results of clinical studies and meta-analyses of clinical studies on the effects of supplementation of types of collagen, vitamins, and nutrients for the rejuvenation of collagen fibers. <strong>Methods: </strong>The search was carried out from October to December 2023 in the Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> A total of 122 articles were found, and 12 articles were evaluated in full, and 07 were included and developed in the present systematic review study. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 20 studies with a high risk of bias and 26 studies that did not meet GRADE and AMSTAR-2. Most studies showed homogeneity in their results, with X<sup>2</sup>=62.4%&gt;50%. Oral nutritional supplements containing collagen peptides can reduce skin vulnerability in the elderly and thus prevent conditions such as skin lesions. The direct effects of collagen peptides on fibroblasts, M2-like macrophages, and mechanisms related to oral tolerance are the possible mechanisms for the beneficial effects of collagen supplementation. Special collagen peptides together with acerola extract, vitamin C, vitamin E, biotin, and zinc showed a significant improvement in the skin's collagen structure. The proven positive nutritional effect on collagen structure was fully consistent with the quality of healthy skin. Finally, apple-derived nanovesicles (exosomes) also reduce the degradation of the extracellular matrix, increasing collagen synthesis (COL3A1, COL1A2, COL8A1, and COL6A1) and negatively regulating the production of metalloproteinases.</p> Michelle Silva Rocha Lorenna Lemos de Aquino Laís Lyrio Barbosa Isabela Lyrio de Souza Edinaldo Marinho de Carvalho Luís Eduardo Ocáriz Brítez Gabriela de Oliveira Gonçalves Vinícius Bezerra Lopes Jessyca Nauana Fernandes Silva Copyright (c) 2023 Michelle Silva Rocha, Lorenna Lemos de Aquino, Laís Lyrio Barbosa, Isabela Lyrio de Souza, Edinaldo Marinho de Carvalho, Luís Eduardo Ocáriz Brítez, Gabriela de Oliveira Gonçalves, Vinícius Bezerra Lopes, Jessyca Nauana Fernandes Silva https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-05 2024-01-05 17 1 10.54448/ijn24102 Obesity and comorbidities in COVID-19: a longitudinal observational retrospective study of the main relationships of life risk https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/335 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Currently, around 30% of the world's population is overweight or obese. By 2030, it is estimated that more than 60% of the world's population will be overweight or obese. The COVID19 pandemic has resulted in the worsening of obesity comorbidities. The primary increase in the inflammatory response in obese patients functions as a predictor for the hyperinflammatory state observed in COVID-19. Therefore, this primary increase can be amplified by SARS-CoV-2 infection, increasing the production of cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to carry out a retrospective longitudinal observational study to quantitatively analyze how cardiovascular comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, and compromised immunity contribute to the increased risk of life of participants affected by COVID-19. <strong>Methods:</strong> This study followed a longitudinal observational retrospective design (STROBE). A total of 45 public and official documents from Brazil (ANVISA), WHO (World Health Organization), Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), EASO (The European Association for the Study of Obesity - The European Commission/ National Information on COVID-19, Lancet Resource Centre) and scientific articles were subjected to eligibility analysis and, after that, 32 documents dated from 2019 to 2022 were selected. <strong>Results:</strong> In total, 3,993,857 participants were found from 32 documents. The highest incidence of deaths occurred in participants who were smokers, had compromised immunity, had diabetes, and were obese. The greatest risk of death was observed among participants who smoke (HR=2.5) and those with compromised immunity (HR=2.1). Despite this, other comorbidities such as diabetes, obesity, and hypertension also presented statistically significant results for the risk of life. It was observed that only the difference between the means of the comorbidities “obesity” and “diabetes” was not statistically significant, with p&lt;0.05, that is, both comorbidities have similar impacts on the worsening and death of participants in the presence of COVID-19. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Cardiovascular comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity, smoking, and compromised immunity contributed to the increased risk of life in participants affected by COVID-19, especially in those of an older age. The endothelial dysfunction caused by SARS-CoV-2 explains why participants with comorbidities related to blood vessels such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity are more likely to develop severe COVID-19, even death</p> Marina Ribeiro Coutinho Teixeira de Carvalho Almeida Caio Augusto Régis Paulo Neto de Almeida Gabriel Augusto Régis Paulo Neto de Almeida Aline Queiroga Estrela Maia Paiva Carina Caroline Barbosa de Lima Fernandes Ana Gabriela Bezerra Ribeiro Coutinho Copyright (c) 2023 Marina Ribeiro Coutinho Teixeira de Carvalho Almeida, Caio Augusto Régis Paulo Neto de Almeida, Gabriel Augusto Régis Paulo Neto de Almeida, Aline Queiroga Estrela Maia Paiva, Carina Caroline Barbosa de Lima Fernandes, Ana Gabriela Bezerra Ribeiro Coutinho https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-12-12 2023-12-12 17 1 10.54448/ijn24101 Major approaches and clinical studies of the relationship of inflammatory bowel diseases with nutrients, gut microbiota, and exosomes/microRNAs: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/334 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are multifactorial diseases characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Nutrients, gut microbiota, exosomes, and microRNAs play crucial roles in the pathophysiology of IBD. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to carry out a systematic review of the main approaches and clinical studies on the relationship between inflammatory bowel diseases and nutrients, intestinal microbiota, and exosomes/microRNAs. <strong>Methods:</strong> The PRISMA Platform systematic review rules were followed. The search was carried out from August to September 2023 in the Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> A total of 177 articles were found, and 58 articles were evaluated in full, and 30 were included and developed in the present systematic review study. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 06 studies with a high risk of bias and 25 studies that did not meet GRADE and AMSTAR-2. Most studies showed homogeneity in their results, with X<sup>2</sup>=67.7%&gt;50%. It was concluded that inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with various gastrointestinal symptoms and, therefore, affect patients' quality of life. Although intestinal bacteria and the host's immune response are considered important factors in its pathogenesis, a sufficient explanation of their role in its pathophysiological mechanism has not been presented. Exosomes and microRNAs, together with nutrients and gut microbiota, participate in the molecular interactions of inflammatory bowel diseases. Recent studies have confirmed the important role of miRNAs in targeting certain molecules in signaling pathways that regulate intestinal barrier homeostasis, inflammatory reactions, and autophagy of the intestinal epithelium. Several studies have identified specific miRNAs associated with inflammatory bowel diseases in colon tissues. The correlation between the gut microbiota and cytokines suggests that exosomes and microRNAs can modulate intestinal immunity by influencing the gut microbiota.</p> Maria Eduarda Brianez Bárbara Rochani Schena Mikaell Alexandre Gouvêa Faria Copyright (c) 2023 Maria Eduarda Brianez, Bárbara Rochani Schena, Mikaell Alexandre Gouvêa Faria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-11-30 2023-11-30 17 1 10.54448/ijn23404 Impact on quality of life caused by vitamin D deficiency in bariatric patients: a literature review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/332 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Bariatric surgery is a procedure performed to control obesity and its associated morbidities. Surgeries with malabsorptive and mixed techniques cause a deficit in the absorption of micronutrients, including vitamin D. <strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of this literature review was to investigate studies that verified the impact of vitamin D deficiency on the preand postoperative quality of life of individuals undergoing bariatric surgery. <strong>Methods:</strong> The search strategy was carried out in the virtual databases PubMed, Scielo, LILACS, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and the Virtual Health Library, in addition to gray literature such as Google Scholar, OpenGrey, Ibict/BDTD (Brazilian digital library of theses and dissertations) and ProQuest using the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) descriptors with Boolean logical operators (AND, OR and NOT. The studies considered potentially eligible were those that presented in the same article the levels of vitamin D in the pre and postoperative period of the individuals, as well as the effect generated on their quality of life from where the data collection and analysis of the main outcomes found were made. <strong>Results:</strong> The online search resulted in 197 studies located in the virtual bibliographic databases and 115 in the gray literature. After removing the duplicates, 235 articles remained that were read by title and abstract, and 12 articles were chosen for reading the full text, leaving 7 that met the inclusion criteria. In most of the included studies, vitamin D deficiency was higher preoperatively than postoperatively in bariatric individuals. Better levels of 25(OH)D were correlated with reduced body weight, decreased BMI, and improved glycemic profile. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Combating obesity remains an important issue in Public Health, with bariatric surgery being a safe way to reduce overweight since vitamin D levels are lower in the postoperative period of bariatric individuals, however, it is suggested to choose the appropriate technique to maintain ideal vitamin indices.</p> Aline de Aguiar Dantas Ikoma Luana Maciel Ramos de Andrade Giovanna de Melo Biceglia Maria Eduarda Banach de Sousa Fernanda Pataro Marsola Razera Renan Canale Peres Montanher Copyright (c) 2023 Aline de Aguiar Dantas Ikoma, Luana Maciel Ramos de Andrade, Giovanna de Melo Biceglia, Maria Eduarda Banach de Sousa, Fernanda Pataro Marsola Razera, Renan Canale Peres Montanher https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-10-26 2023-10-26 17 1 10.54448/ijn23403 Highlight the major clinical outcomes of vitamins and minerals in healthy aging: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/331 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> In the context of healthy longevity, aging is a natural phenomenon that promotes a senescent phenotype, with the shortening of telomeres. The main ways to increase a healthy life expectancy include lifestyle modifications and pharmacological manipulations. Vitamins, minerals (as micronutrients), essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), probiotics, and plant metabolites such as polyphenols and terpenoids are widely recognized for preventing aging. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to carry out a systematic review to highlight the main clinical outcomes of vitamins and minerals in healthy aging. <strong>Methods:</strong> The PRISMA Platform systematic review rules were followed. The search was carried out from August to September 2023 in the Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> A total of 122 articles were found, and 40 articles were evaluated in full and 38 were included and developed in the present systematic review study. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 25 studies with a high risk of bias and 21 studies that did not meet GRADE and AMSTAR-2. Most studies showed homogeneity in their results, with X<sup>2</sup>=72.4%&gt;50%. Zinc and copper govern many functions that characterize the so-called “oxy-aging”. Selenium (Se) is a fundamental cofactor in many redox functions, vitamin C's role in aging has been investigated particularly for skin health and immunity, particularly in inflammatory and degenerative diseases. Retinoids, which represent a synthetic form of vitamin A, appear effective in preventing skin degeneration due to aging. The role of vitamin E in preventing and reducing ROS-induced injuries has been well described. Supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 influenced the biomarkers analyzed to indicate an anti-aging effect. It was concluded that micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals have anti-oxidant, protective, and regenerative properties to promote healthy aging.</p> José Joaquim Portilla Ramos Copyright (c) 2023 José Joaquim Portilla Ramos https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 17 1 10.54448/ijn23402 Effects of cannabidiol on metabolic modulation and improving sports performance: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/330 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> In the sports scenario, cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid that has been accumulating important scientific evidence in various metabolic and metabolomic effects. Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) may be responsible for some adverse effects on sports performance and this makes cannabis unattractive for athletes. Extracellular vesicles (exosomes and microRNAs) induced by exercise emerged as potential mediators of tissue crosstalk. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to carry out a systematic review study to highlight the main outcomes of cannabidiol in metabolic modulation and microRNA signaling in increasing sports performance. <strong>Methods:</strong> The systematic review rules of the PRISMA Platform were followed. The research was carried out from March to May 2023 in Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion: </strong>A total of 127 articles were found. A total of 87 articles were evaluated in full and 62 were included and developed in this systematic review study. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 5 studies with a high risk of bias and 11 studies that did not meet GRADE. It has been shown that cannabidiol exerts some physiological, biochemical, and psychological effects with the potential to benefit athletes. For example, there is preliminary supporting evidence for the anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, analgesic, and anxiolytic actions of cannabidiol and the possibility that it may protect against gastrointestinal damage associated with inflammation and promote healing of traumatic skeletal injuries. However, it is important to recognize that these findings are very preliminary, sometimes inconsistent, and largely derived from preclinical studies. These studies are limited in their generalizability to athletes and often administer high doses of cannabidiol. The central observation is that there is a lack of studies that directly investigate cannabidiol and sports performance. Furthermore, we identified a specific repertoire of microRNAs that are regulated by cannabinoids, at rest (vigilant), and in microglia activated by lipopolysaccharides. Modulated microRNAs and their target genes are controlled by TLR, Nrf2, and Notch cross-signaling and are involved in the immune response, cell cycle regulation, as well as cellular stress and redox homeostasis.</p> Franciele da Silva Conter Vanessa Nishi Ishikawa Giovanna Maria Gontijo Aline Isabela Tiemi Ichikawa Paula Bubna Copyright (c) 2023 Franciele da Silva Conter, Vanessa Nishi Ishikawa, Giovanna Maria Gontijo, Aline Isabela Tiemi Ichikawa, Paula Bubna https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-10-17 2023-10-17 17 1 10.54448/ijn23401 Anais XXVII Congresso Brasileiro de Nutrologia - n. 27, v. 1, 2023 https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/328 <p>O Congresso Nacional de Nutrologia, maior evento da área na América Latina, está na sua 27ª edição.<br>O CBN 2023 tem como missão prover articulação entre os mais renomados palestrantes nacionais e internacionais, juntamente com os profissionais da saúde - acadêmicos, médicos, nutricionistas, psicólogos - com o objetivo de transmitir conhecimento e atualização sobre os mais variados temas que envolvem nossa especialidade.<br>Nesse contexto, é de grande valia que os novos conhecimentos científicos que estão sendo gerados pela comunidade acadêmica, envolvidos pela Nutrologia em todo o país, sejam compartilhados.<br>Dessa forma, além das conferências e palestras, foram selecionados 381 trabalhos, que estão publicados nesses Anais, e 13 foram escolhidos para serem apresentados oralmente durante o evento. Toda esta difusão de conhecimento enriquecerá ainda mais o CBN 2023.</p> Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida Durval Ribas-Filho Copyright (c) 2023 Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida, Durval Ribas-Filho https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-10-04 2023-10-04 17 1 10.54448/ABRAN2023 Major considerations in the use of bariatric endoscopic therapy (intragastric balloon) and nutrological therapy in successful weight loss in patients with obesity: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/326 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Obesity is a chronic and multifactorial disease that affects more than 2.2 billion people worldwide. Treatment options for obesity have expanded significantly and include lifestyle changes, pharmacotherapy, endoscopic bariatric therapies, and bariatric surgery. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to carry out a systematic review to present the main considerations regarding the use of the intragastric balloon as bariatric endoscopic therapy and nutritional therapy in an attempt to achieve successful weight loss in patients with obesity. <strong>Methods:</strong> The PRISMA Platform systematic review rules were followed. The search was carried out from June to August 2023 in the Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> 129 articles were found. A total of 34 articles were evaluated in full and 24 were included in this systematic review. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 26 studies with a high risk of bias and 12 studies that did not meet GRADE. Most studies showed homogeneity in their results, with X<sup>2</sup> =74.7% &gt;50%. In the challenges against super obesity and comorbidities, the use of endoscopic devices has been reported for many years, with the majority of positive results for patients. These devices are gaining increasing acceptance, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved three endoscopic devices for use. Patients should be carefully assessed nutritionally and medication-wise and advised on the most appropriate route. To promote long-term adherence, any dietary intervention must take into account patients' dietary preferences, cultural context, and food availability. Ideally, use a combination of Mediterranean and high-protein diets to promote weight loss based on the patient's preference.</p> Cleanne Martins Silva Idiberto José Zotarelli Filho Copyright (c) 2023 Cleanne Martins Silva, Idiberto José Zotarelli Filho https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-09-11 2023-09-11 17 1 10.54448/ijn23305 A review of the role of vitamin d in autoimmunity https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/324 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The main function of vitamin D is to increase the intestinal absorption of calcium, participating in the stimulation of active transport of this ion in enterocytes. Extra-renal hydroxylation of vitamin D also occurs, originating the vitamin that would act in an autocrine and paracrine manner, with functions of inhibiting cell proliferation, promoting cell differentiation, and immune regulation. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to review the scientific literature on the role of vitamin D in autoimmunity. <strong>Methods:</strong> A search was carried out on scientific articles centered on the proposed theme: “Role of vitamin D in autoimmunity”. Several search engines that carried scientific information in the health area were used to carry out this study, such as Google Scholar and the Medical Publications database (PubMed), and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO). In collecting the information, the descriptors used to carry out this research were: vitamin D; vitamin D in preventing diseases; vitamin D and autoimmune diseases; vitamin D; autoimmune diseases. The inclusion criteria used in this study were publications of scientific articles available in full and with free electronic access, limited to a period between 2011 and 2022, and selected articles in Portuguese and English. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> Based on this methodology, it was possible to analyze a population of 58 articles that were selected for the study and constituted the sample used in this review. Several studies point to the effects of vitamin D not related to calcium metabolism, such as antineoplastic activity (particularly concerning breast, colon, and prostate cancers, and lymphoproliferative diseases), antihypertensive and immunomodulatory. Vitamin D deficiency and its use for treatment have been described in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, lupus, inflammatory bowel disease, myasthenia gravis, scleroderma, alopecia areata, psoriasis, vitiligo, autoimmune hepatitis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune thyroiditis, etc. The effects of vitamin D on the immune system are related to the tolerance of self-antigens, exerting an inhibitory effect on the Th1 and Th17 type lymphocyte pattern, and a promoting effect on the expression of the Th2 and Treg pattern through the action of vitamin D in all cells of the system through the vitamin D receptor. More studies are needed to establish safe and effective doses in the management of these properties of vitamin D.</p> Danilo Chiaradia Finamor Cristiane Fadel Bearzi Giovana Marim Fausto Rohnelt Durante Copyright (c) 2023 Danilo Chiaradia Finamor, Cristiane Fadel Bearzi, Giovana Marim, Fausto Rohnelt Durante https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-11 2023-08-11 17 1 10.54448/ijn23304 Vitamin D deficiency and preterm birth: a comprehensive review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/323 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Pregnancy and its prognosis are highly influenced by maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy. We know the importance of adequate macronutrient intake and micronutrient supplementation in the preconception period, during pregnancy and in the puerperium. <strong>Objective:</strong> This literature review aimed to study the relationship between preterm birth and hypovitaminosis D. <strong>Methods</strong>: Literature review carried out in the Google Scholar, Virtual Health Library (VHL), SciELO and PubMed databases in period of last 5 year- 2017-2022 (june). <strong>Results and</strong> <strong>Conclusion</strong>: recent evidence supports that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. It is known that hypovitaminosis D during pregnancy can be a risk factor for preterm birth and all its complications for the newborn. But its isolated supplementation during pregnancy is still not a preventive action with statistically significant benefits in preterm birth. Researchers and physicians should be made aware of this issue to improve prenatal care. Strategies adopted to prevent preterm birth are scarce, and it is hoped that in the posterity the evidence mentioned in this article on the role of vitamin D may help to reduce its incidence and, consequently, mortality and, as such, improve the health of women pregnant women and their respective descendants.</p> Cristiane Fadel Bearzi Danilo Chiaradia Finamor Giovana Marim Fausto Rohnelt Durante Copyright (c) 2023 Cristiane Fadel Bearzi, Danilo Chiaradia Finamor, Giovana Marim, Fausto Rohnelt Durante https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-10 2023-08-10 17 1 10.54448/ijn23303 Healthy longevity: a systematic review of nutrological and lifestyle aspects https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/321 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> In the context of healthy longevity, quality of life, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors can determine the life expectancy of human beings. Nutrition is a key component affecting our health, and several studies show that nutrition also has the potential to increase lifespan. <strong>Objective: </strong>It was to carry out a systematic review of the impacts of nutrology and lifestyle on the longevity of human beings, as well as to point out the main dietary and lifestyle care based on the results of clinical studies. <strong>Methods:</strong> The systematic review rules of the PRISMA Platform were followed. The research was carried out from April to July 2023 in Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> A total of 311 articles were found, and 147 articles were evaluated and 47 were included in this systematic review. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 29 studies with a high risk of bias and 51 studies that did not meet GRADE. Most studies showed homogeneity in their results, with X<sup>2</sup> =87.3%&gt;50%. There is scientific evidence that nutrients and natural substances of human physiology and biochemistry such as melatonin and coenzyme Q10 control the functions of the immune system. Many metabolic or chronic diseases have been implicated with poor diet and lifestyle. Improved diet quality is associated with reduced all-cause mortality, whereas multivitamins and multimineral supplements can improve life expectancy. Overall well-being is improved when sedentary but sufficiently physically active adults reduce sedentary time and increase physical activity levels. The results of the pandemic indicate there have been a variety of lifestyle changes, physical inactivity, and psychological issues. Still, adults over 40 years old, with children, unemployed, and those living in a macroeconomic region were shown to be more exposed to unhealthy behaviors. The maintenance of dietary intervention through telemedicine can reduce the negative impact of eating habits and physical activity patterns.</p> Rodrigo Augusto Carvalho Junqueira Alexandre Carli Pinto Copyright (c) 2023 Rodrigo Augusto Carvalho Junqueira, Alexandre Carli Pinto https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-08-03 2023-08-03 17 1 10.54448/ijn23302 Pmma body injection and hypercalcemia correlation: a cross-sectional observational study on the comprehensive analysis of variables https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/320 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Hypercalcemia related to aesthetic intramuscular implants exclusively made of PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) is a very rare condition. Late complications of these implants are related to poorly understood inflammatory triggers, which may reactivate stabilized implants, increase calcitriol production, and lead to hypercalcemia. <strong>Methods:</strong> Records of patients seen between 2022 and 2023 with a PMMA microsphere body implant and a subsequent diagnosis of hypercalcemia were searched. Medical history, medication use, data on PMMA implantation, and laboratory tests related to calcium metabolism were described and subjected to variable correlation analysis. The instituted treatments were described. <strong>Results:</strong> A total of 17 female patients with exclusive body PMMA implants confirmed by ultrasonography or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Image) developed hypercalcemia between 2017 and 2022. Prior renal disease, COVID-19 infection, vitamin D use, and anabolic steroid use correlated with laboratory changes in hypercalcemia. Larger PMMA implant volumes led to parathyroid hormone suppression. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Patients with PMMA body implants may rarely present with hypercalcemia when variables such as renal disease before implantation, high doses of vitamin D or anabolic steroids are present. Based on the data presented and the available scientific literature, recommendations for patient investigation, implant volume limit, and patient follow-up after the procedure were made.</p> Fernanda Bortolozo Carlos Eigi Koga Ângela Schütz Paschoal Mariana Rinaldi Honório Sampaio Menezes Ana Cecília Corcini Priscila de Souza Copyright (c) 2023 Fernanda Bortolozo, Carlos Eigi Koga, Ângela Schütz Paschoal, Mariana Rinaldi, Honório Sampaio Menezes, Ana Cecília Corcini, Priscila de Souza https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-07-27 2023-07-27 17 1 10.54448/ijn23301 Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary hospital in Rio Grande do Sul https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/319 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Increasing data suggests a connection between vitamin D (vitD) and COVID-19. VitD may impact COVID-19 by affecting innate cellular immunity and exacerbating cytokine storms linked to severe respiratory syndrome from the virus. <strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the prevalence of vitD deficiency in COVID-19 patients hospitalized at Hospital Ernesto Dornelles and examine its links to in-hospital mortality, the need for Intensive Care Unit (ICU), patient demographics, and hospital stay duration. <strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was performed, in which 3518 hospitalized patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were evaluated to obtain the prevalence of vitD deficiency, from March 2020 to August 2022. Data collection was performed using electronic medical records, excluding patients without serum levels of vitD measured during hospitalization, and including those with the exam in their medical records, which were later placed for statistical analysis. <strong>Results: </strong>486 patients had their serum level of vitD measured, with a mean age of 68.3 years, 57.2% female, and 42.8% male. The prevalence of vitD deficiency was 60.1% (292 patients). There was no difference between the groups with and without vitD deficiency when comparing age, gender, and comorbidities. The median length of hospital stay, the need for ICU admission, and the outcome of death were significantly higher in the group with vitD deficiency (p&lt;0.001; p=0.005; p=0.03). After adjusting for confounding factors, only the risk of ICU admission remained 1.38x higher in the group with vitD deficiency than in the group without (p=0.015), as well as age and CRF were factors with a higher risk for ICU admission. <strong>Conclusions: </strong>The prevalence of vitD deficiency in patients with COVID-19 was 60%, being associated with a higher risk of ICU admission, possibly presenting or not an association with higher mortality rates and length of stay. Therefore, further studies are needed to establish a cause-and-effect association.</p> Maria Julia de Diniz Jacob Juliana Cardozo Fernandes Paloma Dias da Cruz Carolina Garcia Soares Leães Rech Copyright (c) 2023 Maria Julia de Diniz Jacob, Juliana Cardozo Fernandes, Paloma Dias da Cruz, Carolina Garcia Soares Leães Rech https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-13 2024-01-13 17 1 10.54448/ijn24105 The use of assistance dogs in the detection of hypoglycemic episodes in type 1 diabetes: a descriptive and comprehensive review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/318 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a disease of autoimmune and polygenic origin, characterized by the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreatic islets and, consequently, the absence of insulin production. The treatment aims at imitating the physiological secretion of insulin in individuals without comorbidity, using insulin therapy. Hypoglycemia is defined as any event of abnormally low blood glucose, putting the person at potential risk. Tachycardia, tremors, pallor, cold sweating, lingual paresthesia, and blurred vision, possibly leading to coma, are its main signs and symptoms. The recognition of serious clinical conditions transmitted by both visual and olfactory signals can be understood and elaborated by the dog's cognitive system, allowing the rapid detection of a hypoglycemic episode and, thus, allowing adequate conduct before a serious episode. <strong>Objective:</strong> To analyze the advances, both in studies and in professional practices, in the use of assistance dogs to identify hypoglycemia in diabetics 1, as well as to seek to understand the consequences of unidentified and untreated hypoglycemia. <strong>Methods:</strong> The most relevant studies searched using the keywords "hypoglycemia AND diabetes", in addition to "diabetes alert dogs" in Google Scholar, were analyzed, with 4 corresponding to the objectives of the current research. Finally, pathology books and official documents from the Ministry of Health and the Brazilian Society of Diabetes were used to build a theoretical explanation. <strong>Results and Discussion:</strong> Dogs are conditioned to respond with specific alert behaviors, such as barking or licking, when levels of their owner's blood sugar levels are below the ideal range, as identified by the amount of isoprene released in the individual's breath. This attitude causes the patient to measure his plasma glucose level, helping him to carry out the appropriate measures to keep the levels back to normal. The hesitation of the occurrence of hypoglycemia causes some type 1 diabetic to contain their lifestyle to try to reduce the probability of the occurrence of a hypoglycemic episode, negatively affecting their quality of life and psychological well-being. In addition, they can intentionally maintain hyperglycemia to avoid a sudden drop in glucose, however, this practice results in late problems such as nephropathy, neuropathy, and cardiopathy. Conclusions: Hypoglycemia is one of the main threats for people with diabetes, as it results in severe symptoms that can lead to coma if not treated quickly. Possibly, dogs perceive plasma glycemic variations using, in addition to the olfactory apparatus, perceptions captured through other senses, mainly vision, but the scarcity of studies carried out with dogs trained to support people with diabetes problems, mainly in Brazil, makes the efficiency of these animals to detect alterations of glucose in the blood remains debatable.</p> Anna Luiza Alves Boldrin de Siqueira Gisleide Tristão Franco de Alcântara Julia Maria Mendes Peloi Guilherme Eugênio Gil Jesselina Francisco dos Santos Haber Copyright (c) 2023 Anna Luiza Alves Boldrin de Siqueira, Gisleide Tristão Franco de Alcântara, Julia Maria Mendes Peloi, Guilherme Eugênio Gil, Jesselina Francisco dos Santos Haber https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-07-13 2023-07-13 17 1 10.54448/ijn23235 Colostro bovino e suas aplicações na saúde humana: uma revisão narrativa https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/315 <p><strong>Introdução</strong>: o colostro bovino é a secreção produzida pela glândula mamária da vaca nos primeiros dias após o parto. Trata-se de um alimento rico em proteínas, lipídios, além de enzimas, vitaminas, minerais, fatores de crescimento, oligossacarídeos, nucleotídeos e citocinas. <strong>Objetivo:</strong> Foi revisar a literatura em relação aos benefícios do consumo de colostro bovino para a saúde humana. <strong>Métodos</strong>: Revisão narrativa, conduzida por meio de busca nas bases de dados Pubmed, Medline, Scielo, Cochrane, Lilacs e Crossref, usando como palavra-chave “colostro bovino”. <strong>Resultados</strong>: foram encontrados estudos que envolvem potenciais benefícios para imunidade, desempenhos físico e muscular e saúde gastrointestinal. <strong>Conclusão</strong>: O colostro bovino é um produto alimentar e nutricional. Seu uso pode ser feito diretamente como alimento ou como componente de alguns alimentos, mas, atualmente, tem sido mais utilizado como suplemento. Os conhecimentos científicos relativos à segurança de uso e também aos benefícios à saúde de seus componentes, individuais ou associados, têm se acumulado nos últimos anos, permitindo graus crescentes de evidências que podem embasar sua utilização clínica.</p> Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida Copyright (c) 2023 Carlos Alberto Nogueira-de-Almeida https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 17 1 10.54448/ijn23234 Tissue regeneration and gut microbiota-skeletal muscle axis via microRNAs and nutrition: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/314 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> In the scenario of muscle regeneration in athletes, maintenance of skeletal muscle function is the prerequisite for tissue homeostasis and increased performance. MicroRNAs play a positive role in expanding our understanding of the controlling factors for skeletal muscle function. Recent progress has been made regarding gut microbiota, regenerative nutrition, and skeletal muscle metabolism. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to carry out a systematic review of the main relations of regeneration of skeletal muscle-gut microbiota through nutrological functions, cells, and microRNAs. <strong>Methods:</strong> The systematic review rules of the PRISMA Platform were followed. The research was carried out from February to April 2023 in Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> A total of 217 articles were found. A total of 97 articles were fully evaluated and 49 were included and developed in the present systematic review study. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 54 studies at high risk of bias and 34 studies that did not meet the GRADE. It was concluded that miRNAs are widely present in skeletal muscle and play an irreplaceable tuning role in the proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, development, and other physiological processes of skeletal muscle cells. The proposal that miRNAs are primarily involved in the cell's stress response makes miRNAs ideal for mediating the skeletal muscle response to changes in contractile activity. Research has accumulated evidence that confirms that miRNAs have played an important regulatory role in cell proliferation and differentiation, thus regulating skeletal muscle growth as highlighted in the small intestine by intestinal stem cells (LGR5+). The ketogenic or high-glucose diet regulates the self-renewal balance of LGR5+. Self-renewal and HSC differentiation can be regulated by manipulating vitamin C, A, or D levels and valine restriction. The composition of each athlete's microbiome influences sports performance.</p> Rodrigo Augusto Carvalho Junqueira Alexandre Carli Pinto Copyright (c) 2023 Rodrigo Augusto Carvalho Junqueira, Alexandre Carli Pinto https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-07-10 2023-07-10 17 1 10.54448/ijn23233 Clinical and nutrological aspects of celiac disease: a case report https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/313 <p>Celiac Disease is an autoimmune enteropathy triggered by gluten intake in genetically predisposed individuals. The prevalence varies by country and it is estimated to be 1% of the population. Diagnosis can be made at any age, and may manifest in a typical manner with diarrhea, abdominal pain, malabsorption, malnutrition; or with atypical symptoms and extra intestinal manifestations such as metabolic diseases, and neurological symptoms. The interest in its diagnosis results in the regression of symptoms with the dietary exclusion of gluten, the recovery of adequate nutritional status, and the reduction of the risk of the appearance of more serious complications (refractory disease, lymphoma, and intestinal adenocarcinoma). A case is reported of a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, with dyspeptic symptoms, ferropenia, and chronic fatigue who after an etiological investigation was diagnosed with celiac disease, in addition to reviewing current clinical, nutrological, and therapeutic aspects of the disease.</p> Mayelin Abreu Jorrin Maria Amália Maresma San Miguel Copyright (c) 2023 Mayelin Abreu Jorrin, Maria Amália Maresma San Miguel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-07-04 2023-07-04 17 1 10.54448/ijn23232 Major roles of the gut microbiota and microRNAs in cardiovascular disease events: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/312 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Gut microbiota (GM) is an essential mediator in the health of GM and has been identified as the origin of several diseases by influencing cell signaling and T cell receptor pathways in the central nervous system. Several microRNAs participate in signaling networks through GM intervention. The interaction between GM and miRNAs plays a crucial role in vascular dysfunction. GM can metabolize L-carnitine, choline, and phosphatidylcholine and produce vascular-toxic metabolites such as trimethylamine-Noxide (TMAO), which is associated with the atherosclerotic process. Nutrology and dietary therapy represent important strategies, especially with the use of plant-derived miRNAs to modify GM. <strong>Objective: </strong>To carry out a systematic review to highlight the main roles of the gut microbiota and microRNAs in cardiovascular disease events. <strong>Methods:</strong> The present study followed a concise systematic review model (PRISMA). The literary search process was carried out from March to May 2023 and was developed based on Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar, using scientific articles from 2002 to 2022. The low quality of evidence was attributed to reports of cases, editorials, and brief communications, according to the GRADE instrument. The risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> The total of 126 studies were found for eligibility analysis, and then 42 of the 64 total studies were selected for this systematic review. According to the GRADE instrument, most studies showed homogeneity in their results, with X<sup>2</sup> =88.7%&gt;50%. It was concluded that the gut microbiota can be influenced by diet, genetics, and environmental factors. Changes in the microbial population can lead to multiple diseases, including cardiovascular disease. miRNAs have been known as important regulators of several biological functions, and are also involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. There is evidence that disturbances in the gut microbiota and derived metabolites impair the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that YRNAs belonging to extracellular vesicles and their fragments play important roles in the initiation, progression, and diagnosis of atherosclerosis.</p> Vanessa Piovesan Freitas Assumpção Otavio Queiroz Assumpção Copyright (c) 2023 Vanessa Piovesan Freitas Assumpção, Otavio Queiroz Assumpção https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-07-03 2023-07-03 17 1 10.54448/ijn23231 Effects of melatonin in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/311 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Obesity represents a multifactorial disease that causes major public health problems. There are about 2.0 billion overweight and obese people in the world, represented by 39.6% of adults. Melatonin may provide cardioprotection at low pharmacological doses. Melatonin's ability to improve cardiovascular function and its hypotensive effect because of its direct and receptor-dependent antioxidant actions suggest that melatonin may have some beneficial effects in controlling diabetic vascular complications. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to carry out a systematic review of the main effects of melatonin in the treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus, as well as in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. <strong>Methods:</strong> The present study followed a concise systematic review model (PRISMA). The literary search process was carried out from April to May 2023 and was developed based on Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar, using scientific articles until 2023. The low quality of evidence was attributed to case reports, editorials, and short communications, according to the GRADE instrument. The risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> A total of 168 studies were found for eligibility analysis, and so 46 of a total of 68 studies were selected for this systematic review. According to the GRADE instrument, most studies showed homogeneity in their results, with X<sup>2</sup> =90.4%&gt;50%. The Funnel Plot showed a symmetrical behavior, not suggesting a significant risk of bias in studies with smaller sample sizes. It was concluded that melatonin can reduce body weight and fat mass and regulate energy expenditure, glucose/lipid metabolism, and insulin secretion; therefore, it can play an effective role in weight management. There is a growing consensus that the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of melatonin are of great importance in preserving the body's function and homeostasis. In adulthood, disturbances in melatonin production negatively impact the progression of cardiovascular risk factors and promote cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. The consumption of melatonin supplements can be effective in controlling blood pressure and anthropometric indices (as predictors of obesity) in patients with T2DM. Furthermore, melatonin has significant effects on ischemia-reperfusion injury, myocardial injury, pulmonary hypertension, hypertension, vascular diseases, valvular heart diseases, and lipid metabolism. As an inexpensive and well-tolerated drug, melatonin could be a new therapeutic option for cardiovascular diseases.</p> Marcelo Melo Martins Camila Motta Venturin Rhuam Carlos Rocha Castello Jeanderson Prudenciano Peres Vinicius Rangel Luciana Netto Gioia Beatriz Brígido Pontes Amanda Pinheiro Santos Fernanda Eleutério Oliveira Copyright (c) 2023 Marcelo Melo Martins, Camila Motta Venturin, Rhuam Carlos Rocha Castello, Jeanderson Prudenciano Peres, Vinicius Rangel, Luciana Netto Gioia, Beatriz Brígido Pontes, Amanda Pinheiro Santos, Fernanda Eleutério Oliveira https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 17 1 10.54448/ijn23230 Major considerations of cardiometabolic nutrients in heart failure: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/310 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Heart failure (HF) is one of the main causes of hospitalizations in the world. In Brazil, about 7.0 million Brazilians suffer from this syndrome. The clinical evolution of patients with HF evidence variable conditions of malnutrition. This can occur due to inadequate intake, altered metabolism, pro-inflammatory state, increased oxidative stress, and greater loss of nutrients, even due to drug interactions. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to demonstrate, through a systematic review of the literature, the main considerations of cardiometabolic nutrients in heart failure. <strong>Methods:</strong> The present study followed a concise systematic review model (PRISMA). The literary search process was carried out from April to May 2023 and was developed based on Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar, using scientific articles until 2023. The low quality of evidence was attributed to case reports, editorials, and short communications, according to the GRADE instrument. The risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> A total of 136 studies were found for eligibility analysis, and so 75 of a total of 84 studies were selected for this systematic review. According to the GRADE instrument, most studies showed homogeneity in their results, with X<sup>2</sup> =92.2% &gt;50%. The Funnel Plot showed a symmetrical behavior, not suggesting a significant risk of bias in studies with smaller sample sizes. The presence of malnutrition is an important predictive factor for reduced survival in patients with HF, highlighting inadequate food intake, altered metabolism, pro-inflammatory state, increased oxidative stress, greater loss of nutrients, and drug interactions. Patients with HF have anabolism/catabolism imbalance. Providing nutritional support significantly increased dietary adherence above 90%. Therefore, malnutrition and inflammation are important predictors for assessing the prognosis of the disease in patients with HF.</p> Marcelo Melo Martins Camila Motta Venturin Rhuam Carlos Rocha Castello Jeanderson Prudenciano Peres Vinicius Rangel Luciana Netto Gioia Beatriz Brígido Pontes Amanda Pinheiro Santos Fernanda Eleutério Oliveira Copyright (c) 2023 Marcelo Melo Martins, Camila Motta Venturin, Rhuam Carlos Rocha Castello, Jeanderson Prudenciano Peres, Vinicius Rangel, Luciana Netto Gioia, Beatriz Brígido Pontes, Amanda Pinheiro Santos, Fernanda Eleutério Oliveira https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-06-29 2023-06-29 17 1 10.54448/ijn23229 Major aspects of cannabidiol in the interaction with microRNAs and exosomes in the modulation of inflammatory and immunological processes in athletes: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/307 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The correct interaction between elements of the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in the development of the central nervous system. Clinical and preclinical studies suggest that cannabidiol (CBD) may be useful for athletes due to its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anxiolytic, and neuroprotective properties and its influence on the sleep-wake cycle. In addition, a series of implications for epigenetic processes have also been proven, through changes in the expression of microRNAs responsible for modulating the immune and inflammatory systems. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to develop a systematic review study to highlight the main aspects of cannabidiol in the interaction with microRNAs and exosomes in the modulation of inflammatory and immunological processes in athletes. <strong>Methods:</strong> The systematic review rules of the PRISMA Platform were followed. The research was carried out from February to April 2023 in Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> A total of 228 articles were found, and 84 articles were evaluated in full and 60 were included and developed in this systematic review study. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 20 studies with a high risk of bias and 90 studies that did not meet GRADE. CBD has been reported to exert a range of physiological, biochemical, and psychological effects with the potential to benefit human health. For example, there is preliminary supporting evidence for the anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, analgesic, and anxiolytic actions of CBD and the possibility that it may protect against gastrointestinal damage associated with inflammation and promote the healing of traumatic skeletal injuries. The combination of Δ9-THC and CBD can alter the activity of microRNAs responsible for increasing the biosynthesis of inflammatory mediators, leading to a reduction in the inflammatory profile. However, it is important to recognize that these findings are very preliminary, sometimes inconsistent, and largely derived from preclinical studies. These studies are limited in their generalizability to athletes and often administer high doses of CBD. The central observation is that there is a lack of studies that directly investigate CBD and sports performance.</p> Aline Isabela Tiemi Ichikawa Franciele da Silva Conter Paula Bubna Vanessa Nishi Ishikawa Giovanna Maria Gontijo Copyright (c) 2023 Aline Isabela Tiemi Ichikawa, Franciele da Silva Conter, Paula Bubna, Vanessa Nishi Ishikawa, Giovanna Maria Gontijo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-06-20 2023-06-20 17 1 10.54448/ijn23228 Influences of mindset and lifestyle on sports performance: a systematic review https://ijn.zotarellifilhoscientificworks.com/index.php/ijn/article/view/306 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> In the scenario of the mindset and performance of athletes, the athlete's lifestyle becomes an integral part of this development. e need to focus on the mindset of athletes, exploring the perspectives of elite athletes through a qualitative approach, in order to understand the lifestyle and other factors to which they attribute their success. <strong>Objective:</strong> It was to carry out a systematic review to present the main studies on the influence of mindset (mindset) on the performance of athletes, as well as the entire lifestyle scenario for this development. <strong>Methods:</strong> The systematic review rules of the PRISMA Platform were followed. The research was carried out from January to March 2023 in Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo, and Google Scholar databases. The quality of the studies was based on the GRADE instrument and the risk of bias was analyzed according to the Cochrane instrument. <strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> A total of 118 articles were found, and 32 articles were evaluated in full and 29 were included and developed in this systematic review study. Considering the Cochrane tool for risk of bias, the overall assessment resulted in 52 studies with a high risk of bias and 14 studies that did not meet GRADE. It was concluded that mindsets such as believing in yourself after failure (called the constructive mental code) are very beneficial for athletes' perseverance, motivation, and performance improvement. Still, a positive mindset can positively influence the performance of athletes, showing that mental skills training can lead to better performance in competition. Thus, champion athletes attribute their good mindset as the main predictor of competitive success. However, it is necessary to inform and encourage these practices in coaches and support staff in the area of the psychological skills of athletes. Mindfulness can benefit athletes' mindsets and performance. Cognitive variables, such as coping with stress, are significantly correlated with performance. Highperformance strategies include using honed mental rehearsal skills and practicing recovery.</p> Giovanna Maria Gontijo Vanessa Nishi Ishikawa Aline Isabela Tiemi Ichikawa Paula Bubna Franciele da Silva Conter Antonio Carlos Madeiro de Queiroz Rafael Del Picchia Dayton Douglas da Silva Irumuara Interaminense Uliana Filho Copyright (c) 2023 Giovanna Maria Gontijo, Vanessa Nishi Ishikawa, Aline Isabela Tiemi Ichikawa, Paula Bubna, Franciele da Silva Conter, Antonio Carlos Madeiro de Queiroz, Rafael Del Picchia, Dayton Douglas da Silva, Irumuara Interaminense Uliana Filho https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2023-06-19 2023-06-19 17 1 10.54448/ijn23227