Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Review
Published: 17-03-2023

Major influences of the gut microbiota on thyroid metabolism: a concise systematic review

Dr. Rildo Gomes Clinic. Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil
Gut microbiota Dysbiosis Thyroid Diseases Autoimmune disease

Abstract

The objective was to discuss the influence of the gut microbiota on the functions of the thyroid gland, elucidating the main aspects of rebalancing intestinal function and its importance in the regulation of thyroid functions. The present study followed a systematic review of the literature in periodicals published between 2010 and 2023. The microbiota of the healthy gastrointestinal system presents around 800 species of bacteria, and a hundred of these microorganisms together with bacteriophage viruses and fungi species characterize each human being, with maximum concentration in the colon. In the presence of dysbiosis, the malfunction of the epithelial barrier leads to intestinal and systemic disorders, mainly immunological and metabolic. The functions of the gut microbiota are fundamental and determinant in the metabolism of nutrients, drugs, and hormones, including exogenous and endogenous iodothyronines, as well as micronutrients involved in thyroid homeostasis. The state of the art of effects of the gut microbiota on the regulation of thyroid functions has not been fully elucidated. The intestinal tract is of great importance for the balance of exogenous and endogenous thyroid hormones, but the analysis of the composition of the microbiota is not an easy task. A recent study revealed that individuals with hyperthyroidism had significantly lower levels of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli and significantly higher levels of Enterococcus species compared to healthy controls.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

  1. Wu Z, Tian E, Chen Y, Dong Z, Peng Q. Gut microbiota and its roles in the pathogenesis and therapy of endocrine system diseases. Microbiol Res. 2023 Mar;268:127291. doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2022.127291. Epub 2022 Dec 18. PMID: 36542917.
  2. Zhao F, Feng J, Li J, Zhao L, Liu Y, Chen H, Jin Y, Zhu B, Wei Y. Alterations of the Gut Microbiota in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Patients. Thyroid. 2018, Feb;28(2):175-186.
  3. Gong B, Wang C, Meng F, Wang H, Song B, Yang Y, Shan Z. Association Between Gut Microbiota and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 Nov 17;12:774362. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.774362.
  4. Jiang W, Lu G, Gao D, Lv Z, Li D. The relationships between the gut microbiota and its metabolites with thyroid diseases. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 Aug 18;13:943408. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2022.943408.
  5. Sommer F, Bäckhed F. The gut microbiota - masters of host development and physiology. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2013, 11:227-238.
  6. Wu GD, Chen J, Hoffmann C, Bittinger K, Chen Y, Sue A, et al. Linking longterm dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes. Gut Microbes. 2011, 334(6052):105-8.
  7. Wu HJ, Wu E. The role of gut microbiota in immune homeostasis and autoimmunity. Gut Microbes. 2012, 3, 4–14.
  8. Kunc M, Gabrych A, Witkowski JM. Microbiome impact on metabolism and function of sex, thyroid, growth and parathyroid hormones. Acta Biochimica Polonica. 2016, 63, 2:189–201.
  9. Zhang C, Zhang M, Wang S, Han R, Cao Y, Hua W, et al. Interactions between gut microbiota, host genetics and diet relevant to development of metabolic syndromes in mice. ISME J. 2010, 4(2):232-41.
  10. Zhou X, Li A, Ahmed D, Wu L, Liu J, Qiu Y, Yan M, Jin Y, Xin. Gut microbe analysis between hyperthyroid and healthy individuals. Curr. Microbiol. 2014, 69(5), 675–680.
  11. Liu J, Qin X, Lin B, Cui J, Liao J, Zhang F, Lin Q. Analysis of gut microbiota diversity in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients. BMC Microbiol. 2022 Dec 24;22(1):318. doi: 10.1186/s12866-022-02739-z.
  12. Warner MH, Beckett GJ. Mechanisms behind the non-thyroidal illness syndrome: an update. J Endocrinol. 2010, 205: 1–13.
  13. Liu Q, Sun W, Zhang H. Interaction of Gut Microbiota with Endocrine Homeostasis and Thyroid Cancer. Cancers (Basel). 2022 May 27;14(11):2656. doi: 10.3390/cancers14112656.
  14. Tolhurst G, Heffron H, Lam YS, Parker HE, Habib AM, Diakogiannaki E, Cameron J, Grosse J, Reimann F, Gribble FM. Short-chain fatty acids stimulate glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion via the G-protein-coupled receptor FFAR2. Diabetes. 2012, 61: 364–371.
  15. Georgiadi A, Kersten S. Mechanisms of gene regulation by fattyacids. Adv Nutr. 2012, 3: 127–134.
  16. Tlaskalová-Hogenová H, Stěpánková R, Kozáková H, Hudcovic T, Vannucci L, Tučková L, Rossmann P, Hrnčíř T, Kverka M, Zákostelská Z, Klimešová K, Přibylová J, Bártová J, Sanchez D, Fundová P, Borovská D, Srůtková D, Zídek Z, Schwarzer M, Drastich P, Funda DP. The role of gut microbiota (commensal bacteria) and the mucosal barrier in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and cancer: contribution of germ-free and gnotobiotic animal models of human diseases. Cell Mol Immunol. 2011 Mar;8(2):110-20. doi: 10.1038/cmi.2010.67.
  17. Natividad MM, Verdu EF. Modulation of intestinal barrier by gut microbiota: pathological and therapeutic implications. Pharmacol. Res. 2013, 69:42–51.
  18. Virili C, Bassotti G, Santaguida MG, Iuorio R, Del Duca SC, Mercuri V, Picarelli A, Gargiulo P, Gargano L, Centanni M. Atypical celiac disease as cause of increased need for thyroxine: a systematic study. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2012, 97:419–422.
  19. Virili C, Centanni M. Does microbiota composition affect thyroid homeostasis? Endocrine. 2015, 49:583–587.
  20. Calcaterra V, Mameli C, Rossi V, Magenes VC, Massini G, Perazzi C, Verduci E, Zuccotti G. What we know about the relationship between autoimmune thyroid diseases and gut microbiota: a perspective on the role of probiotics on pediatric endocrinology. Minerva Pediatr (Torino). 2022 Dec;74(6):650-671. doi: 10.23736/S2724-5276.22.06873-2.
  21. Knezevic J, Starchl C, Tmava Berisha A, Amrein K. Thyroid-Gut-Axis: How Does the Microbiota Influence Thyroid Function? Nutrients. 2020 Jun 12;12(6):1769. doi: 10.3390/nu12061769.
  22. Fenneman AC, Bruinstroop E, Nieuwdorp M, van der Spek AH, Boelen A. A Comprehensive Review of Thyroid Hormone Metabolism in the Gut and Its Clinical Implications. Thyroid. 2023 Jan;33(1):32-44. doi: 10.1089/thy.2022.0491. Epub 2023 Jan 6. PMID: 36322786.
  23. Festi D, Schiumerini R, Birtolo C, Marzi L, Montrone L, Scaioli E, Di Biase AR, Colecchia A. Gut microbiota and its pathophysiology in disease paradigms. Dig. Dis. 2011, 29, 518–524.
  24. Lin HV, Frassetto A, Kowalik EJ, Nawrocki AR, Lu MM, Kosinski JR, Hubert, JA, Szeto D, Yao X, Forrest G, Marsh DJ. Butyrate and propionate protect against diet-induced obesity and regulate gut hormones via free fatty acid receptor 3-independent mechanisms. ed. Brennan L. PLoS One. 2012, 7: e35240.
  25. Ruchała M, Szczepanek-Parulska E, Zybek A. The influence of lactose intolerance and other gastro-intestinal tract disorders on L-thyroxine absorption. Endokrynol. Pol. 2012, 63:318–323.
  26. de Vos WM, Tilg H, Van Hul M, Cani PD. Gut microbiome and health: mechanistic insights. Gut. 2022 May;71(5):1020-1032. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl2021-326789.
  27. Walker MM, Talley NJ. Review article: bacteria and pathogenesis of disease in the upper gastrointestinal tract—beyond the era of Helicobacter pylori. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 2014, 39:767–779.

How to Cite

Gomes, R. G. de O. (2023). Major influences of the gut microbiota on thyroid metabolism: a concise systematic review. International Journal of Nutrology, 16(2). https://doi.org/10.54448/ijn23203