Introduction: Pregnancy and its prognosis are highly influenced by maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy. We know the importance of adequate macronutrient intake and micronutrient supplementation in the preconception period, during pregnancy and in the puerperium. Objective: This literature review aimed to study the relationship between preterm birth and hypovitaminosis D. Methods: Literature review carried out in the Google Scholar, Virtual Health Library (VHL), SciELO and PubMed databases in period of last 5 year- 2017-2022 (june). Results and Conclusion: recent evidence supports that vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. It is known that hypovitaminosis D during pregnancy can be a risk factor for preterm birth and all its complications for the newborn. But its isolated supplementation during pregnancy is still not a preventive action with statistically significant benefits in preterm birth. Researchers and physicians should be made aware of this issue to improve prenatal care. Strategies adopted to prevent preterm birth are scarce, and it is hoped that in the posterity the evidence mentioned in this article on the role of vitamin D may help to reduce its incidence and, consequently, mortality and, as such, improve the health of women pregnant women and their respective descendants.
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